carlos ii de inglaterra sucesor
Carlos esforzouse por manter o Tratado en segredo, especialmente a cláusula concernente á súa conversión. Charles's eldest son, the Duke of Monmouth, led a rebellion against James II, but was defeated at the Battle of Sedgemoor on 6 July 1685, captured and executed. His subjects resented paying taxes that were spent on his mistresses and their children, many of whom received dukedoms or earldoms. A fin de evitar novos problemas económicos Carlos nomeou, para reformar a xestión do Tesouro e da recadación de impostos, a George Downing (o construtor de Downing Street ou rúa Downing, onde ten a súa residencia o Primeiro Ministro do Reino Unido). Aínda que este decretou unha amnistía para os seguidores de Cromwell na Acta de Inmunidade e Esquecemento, non perdoou aos xuíces e autoridades involucrados no xuízo e execución do seu pai. The prospect of a Catholic monarch was vehemently opposed by Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury (previously Baron Ashley and a member of the Cabal, which had fallen apart in 1673). He was received into the Catholic Church on his deathbed. He delighted and bored listeners with tales of his escape for many years. O Parlamento Cabaleiro identificouse cos proxectos do principal conselleiro de Carlos, Edward Hyde, Primeiro Conde de Clarendon.  Her son, James Crofts (afterwards Duke of Monmouth and Duke of Buccleuch), was one of Charles's many illegitimate children who became prominent in British society.. Carlos consentiu en abolir anticuados deberes feudales que foran restablecidos polo seu pai; a cambio, o Parlamento concedeulle unha renda anual de 1 200 000 £. The major foreign policy issue of his early reign was the Second Anglo-Dutch War.  Charles II is depicted extensively in art, literature and media.  John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, wrote more lewdly of Charles: Restless he rolls from whore to whore  Monck and his army marched into the City of London, and forced the Rump Parliament to re-admit members of the Long Parliament who had been excluded in December 1648, during Pride's Purge. Upon his arrival in Scotland on 23 June 1650, he formally agreed to the Covenant; his abandonment of Episcopal church governance, although winning him support in Scotland, left him unpopular in England. The next day the couple were married at Portsmouth in two ceremonies—a Catholic one conducted in secret, followed by a public Anglican service. Lord Clarendon pretendía desanimar o "non conformismo" (de sectores católicos e sobre todo protestantes non anglicanos) para coa Igrexa de Inglaterra. Charles was their second child. Charles acquiesced to the Clarendon Code even though he favoured a policy of religious tolerance. Durante o resto do seu reinado, Carlos gobernou como monarca absoluto, sen parlamento. Charles raised a ragtag army from his exiled subjects; this small, underpaid, poorly-equipped and ill-disciplined force formed the nucleus of the post-Restoration army. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, and Charles fled to mainland Europe. Carlos morreu repentinamente vítima de uremia, unha síndrome clínica causado por unha disfunción renal, e que é resultado dunha alteración bioquímica no corpo, que afecta á retención corporal de urea. And never did a wise one", To which Charles is reputed to have replied "that the matter was easily accounted for: For that his discourse was his own, his actions were the ministry's". He would not exile past enemies nor confiscate their wealth. Lord Danby era hostil a Francia, pero en privado aceptara aterse aos desexos de Carlos. He was brought up in the care of the Protestant Countess of Dorset, though his godparents included his maternal uncle Louis XIII and his maternal grandmother, Marie de' Medici, the Dowager Queen of France, both of whom were Catholics. Despite the Stuart family connections through Henrietta Maria and the Princess of Orange, France and the Dutch Republic allied themselves with Cromwell's government from 1654, forcing Charles to leave France and turn for aid to Spain, which at that time ruled the Southern Netherlands. During the civil and military unrest that followed, George Monck, the Governor of Scotland, was concerned that the nation would descend into anarchy. Debido ao caos que trouxo consigo a Guerra Civil Inglesa, nunca investíuselle solemnemente coas chamadas Honras do Principado de Gales (diadema, anel, espada, manto etc.).. The present Dukes of Buccleuch, Richmond, Grafton and St Albans descend from Charles in unbroken male line. Charles did not believe the allegations, but ordered his chief minister Lord Danby to investigate. Fíxose soado polos seus numerosos fillos ilexítimos, dos que recoñeceu a catorce. Despite his son's diplomatic efforts to save him, King Charles I was beheaded in January 1649, and England became a republic. Conocido como el Alegre Monarca, Carlos II favoreció las artes y fue menos restrictivo que sus predecesores. O Acta de Conventículos (1664) prohibía as asembleas relixiosas de máis de cinco persoas, excepto as celebradas no seo da Igrexa de Inglaterra. A political crisis that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy, and Charles was invited to return to Britain.  At the Battle of the Dunes in 1658, as part of the larger Spanish force, Charles's army of around 2,000 clashed with Commonwealth troops fighting with the French. Lord Danby, con todo, era anticatólico e animou a Oates a que fixese pública a súa acusación. He was succeeded by his brother James. Although much of the nation had sought war with Catholic France, Charles had secretly negotiated with Louis XIV, trying to reach an agreement under which England would remain neutral in return for money. Seu pai Carlos I foi executado no Palácio de Whitehall em 31 de janeiro de 1649, no auge da Guerra Civil Inglesa. Mercuric poisoning can produce irreversible kidney damage; however, the case for this being a cause of his death is unproven. By 1674 England had gained nothing from the Anglo-Dutch War, and the Cavalier Parliament refused to provide further funds, forcing Charles to make peace. La reina Isabel II ha pedido este jueves a los líderes de la Commonwealth, reunidos esta semana en Londres en su cumbre bianual, que elijan a su hijo, Carlos de Inglaterra, como su sucesor … , The same year, in an unpopular move, Charles sold Dunkirk to his first cousin King Louis XIV of France for about £375,000. O seu pai, Carlos I, foi executado en 1649 tras a Guerra Civil Inglesa; a monarquía foi entón abolida e o país converteuse nunha república baixo o mando de Oliver Cromwell, o "Lord Protector". Charles himself soon came to despise the "villainy" and "hypocrisy" of the Covenanters. Charles II was born at St James's Palace on 29 May 1630. Durante o período de inestabilidade civil e militar que seguiu, George Monck, gobernador de Escocia, preocupado polo perigo de anarquía que corroía á nación, determinou restaurar a monarquía. Aínda que eran moitos os países que buscaran facerlle a guerra á católica Francia, Carlos II negociara en segredo con Luís XIV, tratando de alcanzar un acordo mediante o cal Inglaterra permanecería neutral a cambio de diñeiro. Intentou recrutar un exército, pero fracasou debido ás súas penurias económicas. Protestant conspirators formulated the Rye House Plot, a plan to murder him and the Duke of York as they returned to London after horse races in Newmarket. There would be liberty of conscience and Anglican church policy would not be harsh.  The Second Dutch War (1665–1667) was started by English attempts to muscle in on Dutch possessions in Africa and North America. For the remainder of his reign, Charles ruled without Parliament.  Protestant politicians such as the Earl of Essex, Algernon Sydney, Lord Russell and the Duke of Monmouth were implicated in the plot. Durante a década de 1640, sendo aínda neno o Príncipe de Gales, Carlos I combateu ás tropas do parlamento e do puritanismo na Guerra Civil Inglesa. Portugal had been helped by France, but in the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 Portugal was abandoned by its French ally. A última edición desta páxina foi o 7 de xuño de 2020 ás 14:48. Ao momento de nacer, converteuse automaticamente, dada a súa condición de fillo maior, en duque de Cornualles —por ser herdeiro do trono de Inglaterra— e en duque de Rothesay —como herdeiro do trono de Escocia—. The Scots forces were divided into royalist Engagers and Presbyterian Covenanters, who even fought each other. There would be pardons for nearly all his opponents except the regicides. Hutton says Charles was a popular king in his own day and a "legendary figure" in British history.  Charles's heir presumptive was therefore his unpopular Catholic brother, James, Duke of York.  Earlier in 1668 he leased the islands of Bombay to the company for a nominal sum of £10 paid in gold. , The restrictions against royalist candidates and voters were widely ignored, and the elections resulted in a House of Commons that was fairly evenly divided on political grounds between Royalists and Parliamentarians and on religious grounds between Anglicans and Presbyterians. O Acta de Conventículos e a de as Cinco Millas permaneceron en vigor durante o resto do reinado de Carlos. As he had been required to do so many times during his reign, Charles bowed to the wishes of his opponents, committing Danby to the Tower of London, in which he was held for another five years. , The English Parliament granted him an annual income to run the government of £1.2 million, generated largely from customs and excise duties.  At birth, Charles automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay, along with several other associated titles. , Charles made the Treaty of Brussels with Spain in 1656. O Protectorado de Inglaterra foi abolido e estableceuse a Commonwealth (mancomunidade) de Inglaterra. Whose word no man relies on, In 1670, Charles, seeking to solve his financial troubles, agreed to the Treaty of Dover, under which Louis XIV would pay him £160,000 each year. Carlos I foi capturado polos rebeldes en 1647, escapou, e foi apresado de novo en 1648. Cando soubo que se estaba morrendo, un sacerdote, o Pai John Huddleston, foi enviado con gran discreción ás súas habitacións. Louis made peace with the Triple Alliance, but he continued to maintain his aggressive intentions towards the Netherlands. When the House of Lords attempted to impose the punishment of exile—which the Commons thought too mild—the impeachment became stalled between the two Houses. O conflito comezou pola captura en Norteamérica, por parte dos ingleses, de Nova Ámsterdan (despois rebautizada co nome de Nova York, en honra do irmán de Carlos, James, duque de York, o futuro Xaime II de Inglaterra e VII de Escocia), pero en 1667 os holandeses lanzaron un ataque por sorpresa contra os ingleses na parte superior do río Támese, onde estaba amarrado o mellor da Royal Navy (Armada británica).  The suddenness of his illness and death led to suspicion of poison in the minds of many, including one of the royal doctors; however, a more modern medical analysis has held that the symptoms of his final illness are similar to those of uraemia (a clinical syndrome due to kidney dysfunction). O Parlamento Cabaleiro —aínda que contrario a conceder tolerancia relixiosa aos católicos— opúxose á Declaración de Indulxencia baseándose en principios constitucionais —sostendo a incompetencia real para suspender leis de forma arbitraria— máis que políticos. The Abhorrers—those who thought the Exclusion Bill was abhorrent—were named Tories (after a term for dispossessed Irish Catholic bandits), while the Petitioners—those who supported a petitioning campaign in favour of the Exclusion Bill—were called Whigs (after a term for rebellious Scottish Presbyterians). A nova asemblea, denominada Parlamento da Convención, pouco logo da súa constitución o 25 de abril de 1660, tivo noticias da Declaración de Breda (8 de maio de 1660), na que Carlos acordaba, entre outras cousas, perdoar a moitos dos inimigos do seu pai. Dita suma era só indicativa do máximo que o rei estaba autorizado a retirar cada ano do Tesouro. Ao abrazar o catolicismo no seu leito de morte, Carlos II converteuse no primeiro católico romano que reinaba en Inglaterra desde a morte de María I en 1558, e en Escocia desde a deposición de María I de Escocia, en 1567. Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685)[c] was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. O Acta das Cinco Millas prohibía aos clérigos achegarse a menos de cinco millas dunha parroquia da que fosen expulsados. The official style of Charles II was "Charles the Second, by the Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc. Tras a morte de Oliver Cromwell en 1658, as oportunidades de Carlos para recuperar a Coroa pareceron minguar. Carlos I (19 de noviembre de 1600 - 30 de enero de 1649) fue rey de Inglaterra, Escocia e Irlanda desde el 27 de marzo de 1625 hasta su ejecución en 1649. Era este un acordo entre Inglaterra e Escocia que impedía remodelar a Igrexa de Escocia a imaxe da Anglicana, debendo manterse no Presbiterianismo —forma de goberno eclesiástico preferida pola maioría dos escoceses— a diferenza da Igrexa de Inglaterra que mantivo a súa xerarquía episcopal. Marshall J.  Charles I surrendered into captivity in May 1646. With many of the Scots (including Lord Argyll and other leading Covenanters) refusing to participate, and with few English royalists joining the force as it moved south into England, the invasion ended in defeat at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, after which Charles eluded capture by hiding in the Royal Oak at Boscobel House. The bodies of Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton and John Bradshaw were subjected to the indignity of posthumous decapitations. He was the personal patron of Sir Christopher Wren, the architect who helped rebuild London after the Great Fire and who constructed the Royal Hospital Chelsea, which Charles founded as a home for retired soldiers in 1682. The Cavalier Parliament opposed the Declaration of Indulgence on constitutional grounds by claiming that the king had no right to arbitrarily suspend laws passed by Parliament. A histeria anticatólica estendeuse pola poboación: os xuíces e xurados de todo o país condenaron a supostos conspiradores, e numerosos inocentes foron executados. 1658? Negotiations with Portugal for Charles's marriage to Catherine of Braganza began during his father's reign and upon the restoration, Queen Luísa of Portugal, acting as regent, reopened negotiations with England that resulted in an alliance. , The new English Parliament, which met in March of the same year, was quite hostile to Charles. Tras seis semanas de apuradas fugas, Carlos conseguiu abandonar Inglaterra. When negotiations with the Scots stalled, Charles authorised General Montrose to land in the Orkney Islands with a small army to threaten the Scots with invasion, in the hope of forcing an agreement more to his liking. Carlos II foi un mecenas das artes e as ciencias. Edward Hyde, who had not known of either the marriage or the pregnancy, was created Earl of Clarendon and his position as Charles's favourite minister was strengthened. Á súa chegada a Escocia, o 23 de xuño de 1650, Carlos subscribiu formalmente o pacto. The crisis saw the birth of the pro-exclusion Whig and anti-exclusion Tory parties. Lord Shaftesbury was prosecuted (albeit unsuccessfully) for treason in 1681 and later fled to Holland, where he died. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland. The Conventicle and Five Mile Acts remained in effect for the remainder of Charles's reign. Chegou a Londres o 29 de maio, a que se considera data oficial da Restauración, e que coincidía co trixésimo aniversario de Carlos. A oposición de Carlos á Lei de Exclusión irritou a algúns protestantes, que organizaron o chamado "Complot de Rye House" co propósito de asasinar ao rei e ao duque de York ao seu regreso a Londres das carreiras de cabalos en Newmarket. Retrato de Carlos I en 1630, por Anthony van Dyck 27 de marzo de 1625-30 de enero de 1649 Predecesor Jacobo I de Inglaterra y Maria I de Inglaterra Sucesor Carlos II de Inglaterra 27 de marzo de 1625-30 de enero de 1649 Predecesor Jacobo I de Francia y Maria I de Francia Sucesor Carlos XI de Francia Coronación 2 de febrero de 1626 Otros títulos Duque de York, Duque de Normandia, … One thousand pounds was a vast sum at the time, greater than an average workman's lifetime earnings. Durante a década de 1680, con todo, o apoio popular á Lei de Exclusión comezou a declinar e Carlos asistiu a unha onda de lealdade cara a el por todo o país, xa que moitos dos seus súbditos comezaban a pensar que o parlamento fora demasiado porfiado e ofensivo. In 1670, he entered into the Treaty of Dover, an alliance with his cousin King Louis XIV of France. The Royal Household. Professor Ronald Hutton summarises the polarised historiography: For the past hundred years, books on Charles II have been sharply divided into two categories. The Restoration was accompanied by social change.  During the 1680s, however, popular support for the Exclusion Bill ebbed, and Charles experienced a nationwide surge of loyalty. Today it is possible to assess him without the taint of partisanship, and he is seen as more of a lovable rogue—in the words of his contemporary John Evelyn, "a prince of many virtues and many great imperfections, debonair, easy of access, not bloody or cruel". After 1660, all legal documents stating a regnal year did so as if he had succeeded his father as king in 1649. Anthony Ashley Cooper, Primeiro Conde de Shaftesbury (previamente Barón Ashley e membro de "a Cábala", que se disolveu en 1672) propuxo unha Lei de Exclusión, que pretendía apartar ao duque de York da liña sucesoria. , In the latter half of 1660, Charles's joy at the Restoration was tempered by the deaths of his youngest brother, Henry, and sister, Mary, of smallpox. Sucedeulle o seu irmán, o duque de York, que pasou a ser Xacobe II de Inglaterra e Irlanda e VII de Escocia. Danby had publicly professed that he was hostile to France, but had reservedly agreed to abide by Charles's wishes. He was King of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, and King of England, Scotland and Ireland from the 1660 Restoration of the monarchy until his death in 1685. Un grande incendio, con todo, destruíu gran parte de Newmarket e ocasionou que se cancelasen as carreiras, de modo que o atentado non se puido levar a cabo. In: Harris, T., & Taylor, S. This gathered Spanish support for a restoration in return for Charles's contribution to the war against France. In 1648, during the Second English Civil War, Charles moved to The Hague, where his sister Mary and his brother-in-law William II, Prince of Orange, seemed more likely to provide substantial aid to the royalist cause than his mother's French relations. , Since 1640, Portugal had been fighting a war against Spain to restore its independence after a dynastic union of sixty years between the crowns of Spain and Portugal. Clarendon fuxiu a Francia cando sometéuselle a unha moción de censura na Cámara dos Comúns por alta traizón, o que levaba a pena de morte. The escapades of Charles after his defeat at the Battle of Worcester remained important to him throughout his life. Carlos II, nado o 29 de maio de 1629 e finado o 6 de febreiro de 1685, foi rei de Inglaterra, Escocia e Irlanda desde o 30 de xaneiro de 1649 (nominalmente) e desde o 29 de maio de 1660 (de feito) ata a súa morte. In retrospect, the use of the judicial system by Charles (and later his brother and heir James) as a tool against opposition, helped establish the idea of separation of powers between the judiciary and the Crown in Whig thought. Empobrecido, Carlos non logrou reunir suficientes apoios como para supor un desafío serio ao Lord Protector. Partly to assuage public fears that the royal family was too Catholic, Charles agreed that James's daughter, Mary, should marry the Protestant William of Orange. The power of the Cabal waned and that of Clifford's replacement, Lord Danby, grew. Contribuíu a fundar a Royal Society ou Sociedade Real, un grupo científico entre cuxos primeiros membros contáronse Robert Hooke, Robert Boyle e Sir Isaac Newton. Deste xeito o seu fillo, o Príncipe Guillerme de Gales, actualmente segundo na liña sucesoria ao trono británico, será moi probablemente o primeiro monarca británico que descenda de Carlos II, e o primeiro que descenda de Carlos I desde a morte da raíña Ana I de Inglaterra en 1714. En 1646, o seu pai, temendo pola súa seguridade, ordenoulle marcharse a Francia e reunirse coa súa nai, que se atopaba alí no exilio.  Titus Oates was convicted and imprisoned for defamation. To destroy opposition in London, Charles first disenfranchised many Whigs in the 1682 municipal elections, and in 1683 the London charter was forfeited. Many members feared that he had intended to use the standing army to suppress dissent or impose Catholicism. Os celebrantes adoitaban adornarse con follas de carballo. In fact, the Cabal rarely acted in concert, and the court was often divided between two factions led by Arlington and Buckingham, with Arlington the more successful. Algúns quixeron ata ofrecer a coroa ao protestante duque de Monmouth, un dos fillos ilexítimos de Carlos. Por primeira vez en case vinte anos os membros do Parlamento tiveron que enfrontarse a unhas eleccións xerais. For the most part, the actual revenue was much lower, which led to attempts to economise at court by reducing the size and expenses of the royal household and raise money through unpopular innovations such as the hearth tax. , On 3 September 1650, the Covenanters were defeated at the Battle of Dunbar by a much smaller force led by Oliver Cromwell. A maior parte do tempo, a cantidade dispoñible nas arcas públicas foi moito menor. Charles's wife, Catherine of Braganza, bore no live children, but Charles acknowledged at least twelve illegitimate children by various mistresses. The Corporation Act 1661 required municipal officeholders to swear allegiance; the Act of Uniformity 1662 made the use of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer compulsory; the Conventicle Act 1664 prohibited religious assemblies of more than five people, except under the auspices of the Church of England; and the Five Mile Act 1665 prohibited expelled non-conforming clergymen from coming within five miles (8 km) of a parish from which they had been banished. Ao tempo, no entanto, gran parte de Escocia permaneceu fiel á causa monárquica. Nació en la Casa de Stuart como el segundo hijo del rey James VI de Escocia, pero después de que su padre heredara el trono inglés en 1603 (como James I), se mudó a Inglaterra, donde pasó gran parte del resto de su vida. On the last evening of his life he was received into the Catholic Church in the presence of Father John Huddleston, though the extent to which he was fully conscious or committed, and with whom the idea originated, is unclear. Academic historians have concentrated mainly on his activities as a statesman and emphasised his duplicity, self-indulgence, poor judgement and lack of an aptitude for business or for stable and trustworthy government. Many of them were prosecuted and their estates seized, with Charles replacing judges and sheriffs at will and packing juries to achieve conviction.  The new so-called Convention Parliament assembled on 25 April 1660, and soon afterwards welcomed the Declaration of Breda, in which Charles promised lenience and tolerance. To lay foundations for a new beginning, envoys of the States General appeared in November 1660 with the Dutch Gift. Dubbed the Cavalier Parliament, it was overwhelmingly Royalist and Anglican.  Diana, Princess of Wales, was descended from two of Charles's illegitimate sons: the Dukes of Grafton and Richmond. O Parlamento Cabaleiro tamén se negou a financiar a Guerra Anglo-holandesa, obrigando a Carlos a asinar a paz en 1674. En 1668, Inglaterra aliouse con Suecia e coa súa anterior inimiga, Holanda, a fin de oporse a Luís XIV na Guerra de Devolución. Carlos II retirou a Declaración e mostrouse de acordo co "Acta de Exame", que non só requiría dos funcionarios públicos que recibisen a Eucaristía na forma prescrita pola Igrexa de Inglaterra, senón que os forzaba a denunciar certos ensinos da Igrexa católica como supersticiosas e idólatras. O parlamento de 1679 fora elixido nun momento no que prevalecían os sentimentos anticatólicos en todo o Reino e desde o principio opúxose con vehemencia á perspectiva dun monarca católico. Ironic and cynical, Charles took pleasure in retailing stories which demonstrated the undetectable nature of any inherent majesty he possessed. He never said a foolish thing, Carlos non deu fe ás súas alegacións, pero ordenou o seu Primeiro Ministro, Thomas Osborne, Primeiro Conde de Danby, que investigase. El príncipe Carlos es el primero, pero Guillermo, duque de Cambridge, pisa con fuerza. Lord Danby and the surviving Catholic lords held in the Tower were released and the king's Catholic brother, James, acquired greater influence at court. , Charles's opposition to the Exclusion Bill angered some Protestants. In defiance of the royal will, the House of Commons declared that the dissolution of Parliament did not interrupt impeachment proceedings, and that the pardon was therefore invalid. During Charles's reign all legal documents stating a, From the death of his father to his defeat at the, All dates in this article unless otherwise noted are given in the. The Acts became known as the Clarendon Code, after Lord Clarendon, even though he was not directly responsible for them and even spoke against the Five Mile Act.. O Parlamento ofreceu unha recompensa de 1000 £ pola cabeza do rei e impuxo pena de morte a calquera que prestáselle axuda.  The channel port, although a valuable strategic outpost, was a drain on Charles's limited finances.[e]. La cuestión de quién debería ser su sucesor dio lugar a la guerra de Carlos II (Palacio de St. James, Londres, 29 de mayo de 1630 - Palacio de Whitehall, Londres, 6 de febrero de 1685) fue rey de Inglaterra, Escocia e Irlanda desde el 29 de mayo de 1660 hasta su muerte. Royalist supporters in the Spanish force were led by Charles's younger brother James, Duke of York. En 1678 Titus Oates, un antigo clérigo anglicano, denunciou falsamente unha "conxura papista" para asasinar ao rei e substituílo co duque de York. Although Charles and Parliament granted amnesty to nearly all of Cromwell's supporters in the Act of Indemnity and Oblivion, 50 people were specifically excluded.