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Plutón, el planeta olvidado que ya no es planeta. [32] However, such a lander would only observe the Charon-facing hemisphere of Pluto, as Pluto and Charon are tidally locked. "I told him he was welcome to it", Tombaugh later remembered, "though he's got to go one long, cold trip". En nuestro Sistema Solar había nueve planetas anteriormente hasta que se redefinió lo que era o no un planeta y Plutón tuvo que salir de la conjunción de planetas. Pluto was rejected in favor of Titan, Uranus and Neptune. Pluto 350 aimed to send a spacecraft, weighing 350 kilograms, to Pluto. There used to be a whole set of names for other pluton shapes, but they aren't really much use and have been abandoned. New Horizons used a remote sensing package that includes imaging instruments and a radio science investigation tool, as well as spectroscopic and other experiments, to characterize the global geology and morphology of Pluto and its moon Charon, map their surface composition and analyze Pluto's neutral atmosphere and its escape rate. A full list of previous and upcoming missions to the outer Solar System can be found at the List of missions to the outer planets article. «De hecho, si pones a la Tierra donde está Plutón, ¡quedaría excluida!», le dijo Stern a CNN en 2015. Internal divisions within NASA, including its Scientific Advisory Council, also voiced support for a Pluto mission. At that depth, the magma cooled and crystallized very slowly, allowing the mineral grains to grow large and tightly interlocked — typical of plutonic rocks. Hasta 2006, el Sistema Solar contaba con un planeta más: Plutón. Hunt made fun of these in USGS Professional Paper 228 by proposing the name "cactolith" for a cactus-shaped pluton: "A cactolith is a quasihorizontal chonolith composed of anastomosing ductoliths whose distal ends curl like a harpolith, thin like a sphenolith, or bulge discordantly like an akmolith or ethmolith." No los salvan ni los mayas . This is similar to NASA's Triton Hopper concept for exploring Neptune's largest moon Triton. Algunos científicos opinaban que Plutón se podía haber formado en cualquier otro punto del universo y había quedado atrapado en la órbita gravitatoria del Sol. Global Aerospace Corporation presented a Pluto lander concept titled "Pluto Hop, Skip, and Jump" at the 2017 NIAC Symposium in Denver, Colorado. [8] Alan Stern, as a compromise, reached an agreement with Russian Space Research Institute scientists in Moscow, in which Pluto Fast Flyby would be launched atop a Proton rocket, saving NASA over US$400 million in launch costs. [17] The proposal was forwarded to Administrator Goldin, but he vetoed the proposal, recommending instead that the JPL look into the feasibility of Pluto Fast Flyby being launched aboard a smaller rocket, such as the Delta II. At the time of cancellation, the projected costs surpassed $1 billion. Incluso algunos siguen tratando de debatir este cambio, pero hasta el día de hoy Plutón sigue siendo un planeta enano. - Upravo su mi telefonirali iz policije - objasni Miki ulazeći u auto - da je nekoliko divljih životinja pobeglo iz cirkusa. In the United States, the Idaho, Sierra Nevada, and Peninsular batholiths are the largest. The next Pluto mission—an orbiter and lander? The Fusion-Enabled Pluto Orbiter and Lander was a 2017 phase I report funded by the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) program. [9], In May 1989, a group of scientists and engineers, including Alan Stern and Fran Bagenal, formed an alliance called the "Pluto Underground". It was named in homage of the Mars Underground, another group of scientists that successfully lobbied for the restart of missions to Mars, following the lack of such since the Viking program. Geophysicists call such bodies diapirs ("DYE-a-peers"); salt domes are another example. [30] Stern and David Grinspoon have also suggested that an orbiter mission could search for evidence of the subsurface ocean hinted at in New Horizons data.[31]. Scientific observations of Pluto began five months before the closest approach and continued for at least a month after the encounter. An alternative plan which was considered at one point was to send to Pluto a configuration of the Mariner Mark II spacecraft, which would weigh 2,000 kilograms and cost US$3.2 billion, in sharp contrast to Pluto 350's $543 million cost. [7] Because of growing budget constraints, the dual-spacecraft concept was scrapped in favor of sending a single spacecraft to Pluto. Exploring Pluto was contemplated since its discovery by Clyde Tombaugh in 1930 [citation needed], but Pluto presents significant challenges for exploration because of its small mass and great distance from Earth.The two probes of the Voyager program, launched in 1977 to explore Jupiter and Saturn, had also the ability for an extended mission to other targets. [6] Because no mission to Pluto was planned by any space agency at the time, it would be left unexplored by interplanetary spacecraft for years to come. [8] In response to the backlash caused by the cancellation of Pluto Kuiper Express, it was decided to inaugurate a new class of missions that would fit between the big-budget Flagship Program and the low-budget Discovery Program, creating a compromise for missions such as the former Pluto Kuiper Express, which proved to be too expensive for the Discovery Program. Other plutons have fatter shapes that have a roof and a floor. Photographs of Pluto taken on 14 July 2015 taken 15 minutes after New Horizon's closest approach, from a distance of 18,000 kilometers and sent to Earth on 13 September 2015 show a near-sunset on Pluto with details of the surface and a haze in the atmosphere. This can be easy to see in a pluton that was tilted so that erosion could cut through it at an angle. The only true way to tell the difference is by mapping and analyzing the details of the rocks that are exposed along with the geology of the surrounding area. After an intense political battle, a revised mission to Pluto called New Horizons was granted funding from the US government in 2003. Otros astrónomos opinaban que Plutón podría ser una luna de Neptuno. Su interior probablemente es similar al de otras lunas heladas del sistema solar. [11] The series featured a stamp for all planets, displaying an image of the planet and highlighting an associated spacecraft which was sent to it. There are a slew of partial synonyms based on a pluton's size and shape, including batholith, diapir, intrusion, laccolith, and stock. Both spacecraft were to weigh only around 35-50 kilograms each (including 7 kg worth of scientific instruments), and the project would cost less than US$500 million to develop, excluding launch costs. [35][2] The concept describes an entrycraft that would brake using the drag of Pluto's thin but highly spread-out atmosphere. On 20 March 2015, NASA invited the general public to suggest names for surface features that will be discovered on Pluto and Charon. Two scientists who attended the event, World Space Foundation president Robert Staehle and JPL scientist Stacy Weinstein, were inspired by Pluto's status on the stamp, such that they started to inquire about the feasibility of sending a spacecraft to Pluto. ", "NASA's New Horizons Detects Surface Features, Possible Polar Cap on Pluto", National Aeronautics and Space Administration, "New Horizons Delivering Pluto Imagery With Better Resolution Than Hubble", "Pluto 'Wows' in Spectacular New Backlit Panorama", "Why a group of scientists think we need another mission to Pluto", "Going Back to Pluto? Retrieved from, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "The Long, Strange Trip to Pluto, and How NASA Nearly Missed It", "Global Aerospace Corporation to present Pluto lander concept to NASA", "Fusion-Enabled Pluto Orbiter and Lander", National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), "Pushing Back the Frontier: How The Planetary Society Helped Send a Spacecraft to Pluto", "Feature: How Alan Stern's tenacity, drive, and command got a NASA spacecraft to Pluto", American Association for the Advancement of Science, "How'd we get New Horizons? Otherwise, it may take geophysical techniques to map the pluton's three-dimensional shape. The Geological Society of America, among other critics of the proposal, sent a quick protest, and a few days later the IAU decided on its epochal definition of "dwarf planet" that banished Pluto from the register of planets. Plutón, designado (134340) Pluto, es un planeta enano del sistema solar situado a continuación de la órbita de Neptuno.Su nombre se debe al dios mitológico romano Plutón (Hades según la mitología griega).En la Asamblea General de la Unión Astronómica Internacional celebrada en Praga el 24 de agosto de 2006 se creó una nueva categoría llamada plutoide, en la que se incluye a Plutón. The cancellation of Pluto Kuiper Express angered some of the space-exploration scientific community, which led to groups, such as The Planetary Society, lobbying NASA for either a reboot of the Pluto Kuiper Express or a restart of a mission to Pluto. "Pluto lander concept unveiled by Global Aerospace Corporation - SpaceFlight Insider", List of interstellar and circumstellar molecules,, Discovery and exploration of the Solar System, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 October 2020, at 22:31. Pluto 350, however, would later become controversial among mission planners at NASA, who considered the project to be too small and too high-risk. Planetas que no tienen una superficie bien definida, ya que están compuestos mayoritariamente por fluidos. [7] The spacecraft's minimalistic design was to allow it to travel faster and be more cost-effective, in contrast to most other big-budget projects NASA were developing at the time, such as Galileo and Cassini. Es el más alejado del Sistema Solar. Camino a Plutón. A fusion reactor would be used to send a 1000 kg orbiter and lander to the Pluto system in only four years (more than twice as fast as New Horizons).[34]. You can thank the Pluto Underground",, "Postage for Pluto: A 29-cent stamp pissed off scientists so much they tacked it to, "Pluto Mission a Go! Eventually, despite official selection of scientific instruments and the appointment of several investigators, then-Science Mission Directorate Edward J. Weiler ordered the cancellation of the entire Pluto and Kuiper belt mission in 2000, citing growing budget constraints, which had plagued the project since its inception in 1992. Plutón no es tan grande ni tan pequeño. This project got delayed, and in 2000 the mission was cancelled, with NASA giving the reason of cost overruns. .... , a znalo se o tim tijelima, tada, tako malo. It would then have the option of using Charon's gravity to leave the Pluto system after all Pluto science objectives are completed and study new KBOs beyond Pluto. "Pluton" is a general term that covers the whole variety of shapes taken by bodies of magma. Camino a Júpiter. As research and development into the mission progressed, the project's size, scope, and budget all expanded. Described as a "radical" mission concept, the mission would see two spacecraft being sent to Pluto. Shallower intrusions may be called subvolcanic or hypabyssal intrusions. The Pluto Underground, Pluto 350 and Mariner Mark II, USPS postage stamp and "Pluto Fast Flyby", Kuiper belt, Pluto Kuiper Express and cancellation, Smithsonian National Postal Museum (date unknown). It may represent the deep part of a magma chamber that once fed magma to a long-vanished volcano, like Ship Rock in northwestern New Mexico. [12][13] Engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, inspired by the "Not Yet Explored" status of Pluto, also started to put forward ideas about a mission to Pluto. One of many possibilities for the Voyager 1 spacecraft after its flyby of Saturn in 1980 was to use Saturn as a slingshot towards Pluto for a flyby as early as March 1986. Se darán una nueva vuelta por el Universo. They also considered the term "plutinos." In April 2017, a workshop met in Houston, Texas to discuss ideas for a follow-up mission. New Horizons had its closest approach to Pluto on 14 July 2015—after a 3,462-day journey across the Solar System. The last objective could be accomplished using infrared laser pulses. [7], However, Goldin later decided that Pluto Kuiper Express was of low importance, and thus cut funding to the project drastically. One of the earliest concepts was for a 40-kilogram spacecraft that would reach Pluto in five to six years. A pluton exposed at the Earth's surface has had its overlying rock removed by erosion. Camino a Marte. Who said geologists couldn't be funny? [4][5] However, scientists decided that a flyby of Titan during the Saturn encounter would be a more important scientific objective. The stamp for Pluto, however, depicted a featureless sphere, presented with the phrase "not yet explored" in place of the name of a spacecraft. [19] New Horizons was launched successfully on 19 January 2006. [7], In October 1991, the United States Postal Service released a series of stamps commemorating NASA's exploration of the Solar System. Los pequeños compañeros de Plutón Dinamičari su bili presretni, počinjalo se vidjeti da su bili u pravu. A competition was held, in which NASA would select a mission concept to fund as part of the first mission of the New Frontiers program. Aunque, quizás esta idea sea nuevamente cambiada en poco tiempo. [7], During the course of the late 1990s, a number of trans-Neptunian objects were discovered, confirming the existence of a Kuiper belt. [30] Possible objectives discussed by the group for a follow-up mission include mapping the surface at 30 feet per pixel, observations of Pluto's smaller satellites, observations of how Pluto changes as it rotates on its axis, and topographic mapping of Pluto's regions that are covered in long-term darkness due to its axial tilt. [8], Another mission concept, known as Pluto 350, was developed by Robert Farquhar of the Goddard Space Flight Center, with Alan Stern and Fran Bagenal of the Pluto Underground, who both served as study scientists for the project. Shortly after the New Horizons flyby, Stern suggested a Charon lander as a follow-up that would observe Pluto from Charon's surface. Once on Pluto's surface, the vehicle would exploit Pluto's low gravity to hop between sites using propellant. (See What Is a Planet?). Power and propulsion would come from the bimodal MITEE nuclear reactor system.[18]. La Selección Colombia avergonzó al país, o al menos así lo indicaron los periodistas deportivos de más nombre en el territorio. Los astrónomos deberán seguir decidiendo su futuro. He works as a research guide for the U.S. Geological Survey. Stern envisaged the probe being launched in 2030, marking the 100th anniversary of Pluto's discovery, and spending 7-8 years traveling to the Pluto system. [32] The probe could use electric propulsion similar to NASA's Dawn mission. In 1953, Charles B. Iza Neptuna nije samo Pluton, već cijeli niz tijela vezanih u orbitalne rezonance s njim. [21] The images, taken from a distance of approximately 4.2 billion kilometers, confirmed the spacecraft's ability to track distant targets, critical for maneuvering toward Pluto and other Kuiper belt objects. A subsequent flyby of Pluto was impossible, because the close approach of Titan meant it was also on a trajectory that slingshotted it upwards out of the ecliptic. Andrew Alden is a geologist based in Oakland, California. A pluton (pronounced "PLOO-tonn") is a deep-seated intrusion of igneous rock, a body that made its way into pre-existing rocks in a melted form several kilometers underground in the Earth's crust and then solidified.At that depth, the magma cooled and crystallized very slowly, allowing the mineral grains to grow large and tightly interlocked — typical of plutonic rocks. Tras la convención que hubo en Praga, se dio una definición diferente para los planetas. [8][9], A Pluto orbiter/lander/sample return mission was proposed in 2003. At the time, it was thought that the atmosphere of Pluto would freeze and fall to the surface during winter, and so a lightweight spacecraft was desirable, as it would be able to reach Pluto before such an event would occur. New Horizons also photographed the surfaces of Pluto and Charon. That stamp had been in so many presentations by that point, I knew it would please people to have it go along. Exploring Pluto was contemplated since its discovery by Clyde Tombaugh in 1930[citation needed], but Pluto presents significant challenges for exploration because of its small mass and great distance from Earth. Plutón [a] foi o deus do inframundo na mitoloxía romana.O seu equivalente na mitoloxía grega era Hades, aínda que Plutón era máis benigno.En canto á etimoloxía do nome confúndeselle coa de Pluto, o deus grego das riquezas.. Mito. Because no mission to Pluto was planned by any space agency at the time, it would be left unexplored by interplanetary spacecraft for years to come. The two probes of the Voyager program, launched in 1977 to explore Jupiter and Saturn, had also the ability for an extended mission to other targets. The mission heralded the same ideology as the Pluto 350 concept: small in size and cost-effective in scope, so that the spacecraft would be able to get to Pluto faster and be affordable to develop and launch. Bottomless plutons like these are called stocks if they are smaller than 100 square kilometers in extent, and batholiths if they're larger. The project was still too expensive, however, in the eyes of Administrator Goldin. [12] Described by Staehle as a "faster, better, [and] cheaper" approach than the Pluto 350 and Mariner Mark II projects, it caught the attention of then-NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin, who ordered all work on both Pluto 350 and Mariner Mark II to cease and shift all resources to the new Pluto Fast Flyby project instead. Narrow sheets of magma that form sills and igneous dikes may qualify as plutons if the rock inside them solidified at depth. Plutón es una bola helada de hielo y roca. On 4 February 2015, NASA released new images of Pluto (taken on 25 and 27 January) from the approaching probe. The group started a letter writing campaign which aimed to bring to attention Pluto as a viable target for exploration. These have a conduit of some sort that fed magma into them, usually called a feeder dike (if it's flat) or a stock (if it's round). Alan Stern would later cite that event as a significant factor towards the low enthusiasm for the Pluto Fast Flyby project. Sala je bila puna, i rijetko je tko htio propustiti priču u nastajanju. Ne indeamna sa fim distructivi, dar si de a aduce o reforma pozitiva si schimbari definitive. The plan included a twelve-year trip from Earth to Pluto, mapping from orbit, multiple landings, a warm water probe, and possible in situ propellant production for another twelve-year trip back to Earth with samples. Durante muchos años se creyó de que Plutón era un satélite del planeta Neptuno. Se han descubierto muchos cuerpos en la misma región, comparte el espacio con otros cuerpos celestes. Space Exploration Issue - 29c Pluto single - Scott Catalogue USA: 2577. [22] New Horizons was more than 203,000,000 km (126,000,000 mi) away from Pluto when it began taking the photos, which showed Pluto and its largest moon, Charon. The mission leader, S. Alan Stern, confirmed that some of the ashes of Clyde Tombaugh, who died in 1997, had been placed aboard the spacecraft.[20]. According to New Horizons principal investigator Alan Stern, “If we send an orbiter, we can map 100 percent of the planet, even terrains that are in total shadow." The formation and fate of plutons is an important, long-standing scientific problem. Muchos investigadores e integrantes de la sociedad civil no estuvieron de acuerdo con este nombramiento. A blister-shaped pluton that raised the overlying rocks into a dome may be called a laccolith. [25][26], Pluto's small moons, discovered shortly before and after the probe's launch, were considered to be potentially hazardous, as debris from collisions between them and other Kuiper belt objects could have produced a tenuous dusty ring. [24] Between April and June 2015, New Horizons began returning images of Pluto that exceeded the quality that the Hubble Space Telescope could produce. The mission was thus re-branded as the Pluto Kuiper Express, after briefly being billed as Pluto Express prior to the revision. [28][29], No follow-up missions to New Horizons have been formally planned, but at least two mission concepts have been studied. It may also represent a magma chamber that never reached the surface, like Stone Mountain in Georgia. Scientists to Push for Orbiter Mission". This became known as the Pluto Express, and eventually the Pluto-Kuiper Express. The weight of the spacecraft was raised again, this time to 175 kilograms, and NASA allowed further liberty with the project's budget. Nuestros astrónomos ya se han reunido para enviar a los planetas a las diferentes agrupaciones. For many years, people had waved that stamp around as sort of a call to arms, as a motivating graphic: "Not yet explored". A mushroom-shaped pluton may be called a lopolith, and a cylindrical one may be called a "bysmalith." Additionally, morale among the team and personnel working on interplanetary missions was low following the loss of the Mars Observer spacecraft during its attempted Areocentric orbit insertion in August 1993. [14][15], In August 1992, Staehle telephoned Pluto's discoverer, Clyde Tombaugh, requesting permission to visit his planet. [16] That year, Staehle, with the help of JPL engineers and students from the California Institute of Technology, formed the Pluto Fast Flyby project. [8] While both projects competed for approval, Pluto 350 was more favored by NASA mission planners, who were starting to adopt smaller missions such as Mars Pathfinder and NEAR Shoemaker. The exploration of Pluto began with the arrival of the New Horizons probe in July 2015, though proposals for such a mission had been studied for many decades. Alec Galeev, head of the Russian Space Research Institute, reached the agreement with Stern by stipulating that Russia would include an atmospheric probe that would impact Pluto after studying its atmosphere with a mass spectrometer. Shortly after Voyager 2's flyby of Neptune and its findings at Triton in August 1989, scientists sought interest in a mission to Pluto and further studies for the existence of a Kuiper belt and Kuiper belt objects, potentially similar to Triton. Después de 75 años en la categoría de planeta, en 2006 fue considerado como Planeta enano. For a few days in 2006, the International Astronomical Union considered giving the name "plutons" to large bodies in the outer part of the solar system, apparently thinking that it would signify "Pluto-like objects." Thus plutons, and especially batholiths, go along with subduction zones that create arc volcanism. [8] The spacecraft were intended to be launched using Titan IV rockets, which would have cost US$400 million each, thus raising the budget to over US$1 billion. In 1992, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) proposed the Pluto Fast Flyby mission. Since the Houston workshop, Stern changed his mind to advocate instead for a Cassini-style orbiter that would use Charon's gravity to adjust its orbit while studying Pluto and its moons. Plutons may readily melt their way upward in the lower crust, but they have a hard time reaching the surface through the cold, strong upper crust. New Horizons captured its first (distant) images of Pluto in late September 2006, during a test of the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager. That is, plutons are defined by the presence of plutonic rocks. [10] In 1990, because of pressure from the scientific community, including those of the Pluto Underground, engineers at NASA decided to look into concepts for a mission to Pluto. Tienen pinta de terrícolas y un Gran Final les espera . The idea was shortly scrapped, however, because of the infeasibility of miniaturizing scientific instruments aboard such a spacecraft to that size. If New Horizons had travelled through such a ring system, there would have been an increased risk of potentially disabling micrometeoroid damage.[27]. [1] There are no plans as yet for a follow-up mission, though follow-up concepts have been studied.[2][3]. After a Neptune encounter, the alignment of Pluto made it impossible for Voyager 2 to continue there, leaving it on a trajectory out of the Solar System. Then there are plutons that have no floor, or at least no evidence of one. It appears that they need help from regional tectonics that pulls the crust apart—the same thing that favors volcanoes at the surface. [3][33] The report, written by principal investigator Stephanie Thomas of Princeton Satellite Systems, Inc., describes a Direct Fusion Drive (DFD) mission to Pluto.

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