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[58] The genetic mechanism for the enhanced virulence in CA-MRSA remains an active area of research. [40] A defining characteristic of MRSA is its ability to thrive in the presence of penicillin-like antibiotics, which normally prevent bacterial growth by inhibiting synthesis of cell wall material. [70], MRSA can be identified by swabbing the nostrils and isolating the bacteria found there. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! La activación del microorganismo se produce si la microflora intestinal se ve afectada o si se reduce la inmunidad general / local. [32] In 2015, Los Angeles Dodgers infielder Justin Turner was infected while the team visited the New York Mets. [86], Infection after surgery is relatively uncommon, but occurs as much as 33% in specific types of surgeries. [75], To prevent the spread of MRSA in the home, health departments recommend laundering materials that have come into contact with infected persons separately and with a dilute bleach solution; to reduce the bacterial load in one's nose and skin; and to clean and disinfect those things in the house that people regularly touch, such as sinks, tubs, kitchen counters, cell phones, light switches, doorknobs, phones, toilets, and computer keyboards. According to the CDC, the most recent estimates of the incidence of healthcare-associated infections that are attributable to MRSA in the United States indicate a decline in such infection rates. [97], Oxazolidinones such as linezolid became available in the 1990s and are comparable to vancomycin in effectiveness against MRSA. Furthermore, with MRSA's high contagion rate,[10] a common risk factor is individuals who are in constant contact with someone who has injected drugs in the past year. Although MRSA-related mortality and morbidity have been studied, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) has not been investigated to the same degree. Le Staphylococcus aureus résistant à la méthicilline est habituellement transmis par le toucher, le plus fréquemment par les mains ou les objets souillés avec des fluides corporels infectés. [124][125][126] Word of outbreaks of infection appears regularly in newspapers and television news programs. [76], Glycopeptides, cephalosporins, and in particular, quinolones are associated with an increased risk of colonisation of MRSA. It stains Gram positive and is non-moving small round shaped or non-motile cocci. [4] Examples of soft-tissue infections from MRSA include ulcers, impetigo, abscesses, and SSIs. In 1996, vancomycin resistance was reported in Japan. [114], A population-based study of the incidence of MRSA infections in San Francisco during 2004–05 demonstrated that nearly one in 300 residents suffered from such an infection in the course of a year and that greater than 85% of these infections occurred outside of the healthcare setting. [139][140], A 2015 Cochrane systematic review aimed to assess the effectiveness of wearing gloves, gowns and masks to help stop the spread of MRSA in hospitals, however no eligible studies were identified for inclusion. Health departments recommend that the pet be taken to the veterinarian if MRSA infections keep occurring in the people who have contact with the pet. [4], Livestock associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) has been observed in Korea, Brazil, Switzerland, Malaysia, India, Great Britain, Denmark, and China.[18]. [54], In the United States, most cases of CA-MRSA are caused by a CC8 strain designated ST8:USA300, which carries SCCmec type IV, Panton–Valentine leukocidin, PSM-alpha and enterotoxins Q and K,[56] and ST1:USA400. [1] Transmission can occur between healthcare providers and patients because some providers may neglect to perform preventative hand-washing between examinations. For example, in Australia, ST93 strains are common, while in continental Europe ST80 strains, which carry SCCmec type IV, predominate. [34], MRSA is becoming a critical problem in children;[35] studies found 4.6% of patients in U.S. health-care facilities, (presumably) including hospital nurseries,[36] were infected or colonized with MRSA. [107] The estimated incidence is 4.5 nosocomial infections per 100 admissions, with direct costs (at 2004 prices) ranging from $10,500 (£5300, €8000 at 2006 rates) per case (for bloodstream, urinary tract, or respiratory infections in immunocompetent people) to $111,000 (£57,000, €85,000) per case for antibiotic-resistant infections in the bloodstream in people with transplants. European incidence was 22.8%. Patients with positive swabs had significantly more admissions (P = 0.033) and in particular, more infection-related admissions (P = 0.001). In the United Kingdom and Ireland, no resistance was found in staphylococci collected from bacteremia cases between 2001 and 2006. MRSA sepsis that occurs within 30 days following a surgical infection has a 15–38% mortality rate; MRSA sepsis that occurs within one year has a mortality rate of around 55%. The review authors concluded that there is a need for randomized controlled trials to be conducted to help determine if the use of gloves, gowns, and masks reduces the transmission of MRSA in hospitals.  |  [63], A MRSA strain, CC398, is found in intensively reared production animals (primarily pigs, but also cattle and poultry), where it can be transmitted to humans as LA-MRSA (livestock-associated MRSA). [100], There is insufficient evidence to support the use of topical or systematic antibiotics for nasal or extra-nasal MRSA infection. [4] In 2009, there were an estimated 463,017 hospitalizations due to MRSA, or a rate of 11.74 per 1,000 hospitalizations. There is a rate of 12.9% in those infected with MRSA while only 3% infected with other organisms. Generally, those infected by MRSA stay infected for just under 10 days, if treated by a doctor, although effects may vary from person to person. SARM es el acrónimo de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina. Infections of surgical sites range from 1% to 33%. It does not form spores and it is not motile. [85] Overall MRSA infection rates varied in Latin America: Colombia and Venezuela combined had 3%, Mexico had 50%, Chile 38%, Brazil 29%, and Argentina 28%. [1], Globally, MRSA infection rates are dynamic and vary year to year. [20]:637, In health-care settings, isolating those with MRSA from those without the infection is one method to prevent transmission. [4] Guidance on how many toilets to provide and what sort of washing facilities should be provided alongside them is given in the Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Approved Code of Practice and Guidance L24, available from Health and Safety Executive Books, but no legal obligations exist on local authorities in the United Kingdom to provide public toilets, and although in 2008, the House of Commons Communities and Local Government Committee called for a duty on local authorities to develop a public toilet strategy,[82] this was rejected by the Government. Other reports of MRSA began to be described in the 1970s. The incidence of MRSA in those with cystic fibrosis increased during 2000 to 2015 by five times. [100] Phage therapy has been used for years in MRSA in eastern countries, and studies are ongoing in western countries. As a consequence of the inability of PBP2a to interact with β-lactam moieties, acquisition of mecA confers resistance to all β-lactam antibiotics in addition to methicillin. Un tipo llamado Staphylococcus aureus causa la mayoría de las infecciones por estafilococo. [18], Treatment of MRSA infection is urgent and delays can be fatal. 2014 Oct;14(10):967-75. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70876-X. in 2001, and can be explained by the fitness differences associated with carriage of a large or small SCCmec plasmid. The first report of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) occurred in 1981, and in 1982, a large outbreak of CA-MRSA occurred among intravenous drug users in Detroit, Michigan. [48] Different genotypes are also associated with different types of infections. [4], Across Europe, based mostly on data from 2013, seven countries (Iceland, Norway, Sweden, the Netherlands, Denmark, Finland, and Estonia, from lowest to highest) had low levels of hospital-acquired MRSA infections compared to the others,[122]:92–93 and among countries with higher levels, significant improvements had been made only in Bulgaria, Poland, and the British Isles. [56] Under the new international typing system, this strain is now called MRSA252. Specifically, these are: cinnamic acid, cinnamyl cinnamate, ethyl cinnamate, benzyl cinnamate, styrene, vanillin, cinnamyl alcohol, 2-phenylpropyl alcohol, and 3-phenylpropyl cinnamate. He did not present any risk factor for endocarditis. Staphylococcus aureus es una forma bastante común de bacteria que se puede encontrar tanto en el suelo como en el aire, y en la superficie de la piel y las membranas mucosas de una persona. [49] In contrast, CA-MRSA tends to carry lower-fitness cost SCCmec elements to offset the increased virulence and toxicity expression required to infect healthy hosts. [4], Evaluation for the replacement of a prosthetic valve is considered. USA.gov. The Panton–Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes are of particular interest because they are a unique feature of CA-MRSA. The first identified case was in Japan in 1996, and strains have since been found in hospitals in England, France, and the US. [109], In the United States, an estimated 95 million people carry S. aureus in their noses; of these, 2.5 million (2.6% of carriers) carry MRSA. [42] mecA encodes penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a), which differs from other penicillin-binding proteins as its active site does not bind methicillin or other β-lactam antibiotics. [19]:328 The location and history related to the infection determines the treatment. [53], Acquisition of SCCmec in methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) gives rise to a number of genetically different MRSA lineages. [86], The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that about 1.7 million nosocomial infections occurred in the United States in 2002, with 99,000 associated deaths. Infección por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino sensible Dra. Examples of such elements include plasmids, transposable genetic elements, and genomic islands, which can be transferred between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer. Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. After the susceptibility to antibiotics is performed, the infection may be treated with vancomycin or linezolid for up to 21 days. Descargar archivos adjuntos: Infección por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino sensible (Descargas) Leído 7581 veces Publicado en Setiembre 2014. [54] Historically, major MRSA clones ST2470-MRSA-I, ST239-MRSA-III, ST5-MRSA-II, and ST5-MRSA-IV were responsible for causing hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) infections. HHS [16] By 2004, the genome for various strains of MRSA were described. [42] As such, PBP2a can continue to catalyze the transpeptidation reaction required for peptidoglycan cross-linking, enabling cell wall synthesis even in the presence of antibiotics. [21], In skin infections and secondary infection sites, topical mupirocin is used successfully. Patients with end-stage renal disease are susceptible to infection, particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). [103] There are concerns that the presence of MRSA in the environment may allow resistance to be transferred to other bacteria through phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. [118] In addition, Wyllie et al. [42][43] Currently, six unique SCCmec types ranging in size from 21–67 kb have been identified;[42] they are designated types I–VI and are distinguished by variation in mec and ccr gene complexes. MRSA is any strain of S. aureus that has developed (through natural selection) or acquired (through horizontal gene transfer) a multiple drug resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. [102], In a US cohort study of 1,300 healthy children, 2.4% carried MRSA in their nose. Four to six weeks of antibiotic treatment is often recommended, and is dependent upon the extent of MRSA infection. [20]:637 In many countries, outbreaks of MRSA infection were reported to be transmitted between hospitals. [95] Current guidelines recommend daptomycin for VISA bloodstream infections and endocarditis. Get the latest research from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus. [89] Because the oral absorption of vancomycin and teicoplanin is very low, these agents can be administered intravenously to control systemic infections. [108], The British National Audit Office estimated that the incidence of nosocomial infections in Europe ranges from 4% to 10% of all hospital admissions. No conclusive evidence has been found about the best antibiotic regimen to treat MRSA colonization. While HA-MRSA rates stabilized between 1998 and 2008, CA-MRSA rates continued to rise. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) refers to a group of Gram-positive bacteria that are genetically distinct from other strains of Staphylococcus aureus.MRSA is responsible for several difficult-to-treat infections in humans. Needle-required drugs have caused an increase of MRSA,[39] with injection drug use (IDU) making up 24.1% (1,839 individuals) of Tennessee Hospital's Discharge System. [121] A separate system tracking all hospital MRSA bloodstream infections found an overall 34% decrease between 2005 and 2008. [77] One of the few countries not to have been overwhelmed by MRSA is the Netherlands: an important part of the success of the Dutch strategy may have been to attempt eradication of carriage upon discharge from hospital. Five … Risk Factors and Short-Term Outcomes for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus Colonization Among Hemodialysis Patients Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. [54] The first MRSA strain, ST250 MRSA-1, originated from SCCmec and ST250-MSSA integration. There were however, less fistulas and more lines in the positive patients (P = 0.025). [72], Excluding medical facilities, current US guidance does not require workers with MRSA infections to be routinely excluded from the general workplace. [73] Workers with active infections are excluded from activities where skin-to-skin contact is likely to occur. The effective treatment of MRSA with linezolid has been successful[84] in 87% of people. [88] Teicoplanin is a structural congener of vancomycin that has a similar activity spectrum but a longer half-life. report a death rate of 34% within 30 days among people infected with MRSA, a rate similar to the death rate of 27% seen among MSSA-infected people. [40] Owing to the size of the SCCmec element and the constraints of horizontal gene transfer, a minimum of five clones are thought to be responsible for the spread of MRSA infections, with clonal complex (CC) 8 most prevalent. There was no statistical difference in age, Charlson index, diabetes, sex, ethnicity, deprivation index, or the duration of dialysis between the positive and negative groups. Antibiotic Resistance in the Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Keratitis: a 20-Year Review. Antibiotic therapy is used in each instance sometimes long-term. A report on skin and soft-tissue infections in the Cook County jail in Chicago in 2004–05 demonstrated MRSA was the most common cause of these infections among those incarcerated there. A report released by the University of Chicago Children's Hospital comparing two periods (1993–1995 and 1995–1997) found a 25-fold increase in the rate of hospitalizations due to MRSA among children in the United States. Antibiotics effective against MRSA can be given by IV, oral, or a combination of both, and depend on the specific circumstances and patient characteristics. If the pneumonia is complicated by the accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs, drainage may be done along with antibiotic therapy. There may be increased mortality associated with cardiac surgery. [18][27] Generally, animals are asymptomatic. 2011. Infecciones por Staphylococcus aureus - Aprenda acerca de las causas, los síntomas, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de los Manuales MSD, versión para público general. Although MRSA-related mortality and morbidity have been studied, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) has not been investigated to the same degree. [47], Different SCCmec genotypes confer different microbiological characteristics, such as different antimicrobial resistance rates. These new strains of the MRSA bacterium have been dubbed vancomycin intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA). The route of administration of an antibiotic varies. Following multivariable analysis, swab positivity remained an independent risk factor for mortality. Since its discovery in the 1880s, it has been recognized as a major opportunistic pathogen in humans, responsible for various diseases, ranging from minor skin infections to severe bacteremia and necrotizing pneumonia. [43][48] Conversely, CA-MRSA is associated with types IV and V, which are smaller and lack resistance genes other than mecA. [33] In October 2015, New York Giants tight end Daniel Fells was hospitalized with a serious MRSA infection. [128][129], MRSA is the topic of radio programs,[130] television shows,[131][132][133] books,[134] and movies. J. Mensa, et al. With these numbers, conservative estimates of the total direct costs of nosocomial infections are above $17 billion. [37] Children and adults who come in contact with day-care centers,[18] playgrounds, locker rooms, camps, dormitories, classrooms and other school settings, and gyms and workout facilities are at higher risk of contracting MRSA. 2005 Feb;26(2):175-83. doi: 10.1086/502523. The rate of all MRSA infections in Europe ranged from 50% per cent in Portugal down to 0.8 per cent in Sweden. Rosa Flieller Dra. Treatment with vancomycin is successful in approximately 49% of people. [113], The observed increased mortality among MRSA-infected people arguably may be the result of the increased underlying morbidity of these people. S. aureus has also developed resistance to vancomycin (VRSA). Cornea. [110] A population review conducted in three U.S. communities showed the annual incidence of CA-MRSA during 2001–2002 to be 18–25.7/100,000; most CA-MRSA isolates were associated with clinically relevant infections, and 23% of people required hospitalization. J Hosp Infect. 195 pp. Resistance to antibiotics in S. aureus can be quantified by determining the amount of the antibiotic that must be used to inhibit growth. Combined with extra sanitary measures for those in contact with infected people, swab screening people admitted to hospitals has been found to be effective in minimizing the spread of MRSA in hospitals in the United States, Denmark, Finland, and the Netherlands. [123], MRSA is frequently a media topic, especially if well-known personalities have announced that they have or have had the infection. Beta-lactam (β-lactam) antibiotics are a broad-spectrum group that include some penams (penicillin derivatives such as methicillin and oxacillin) and cephems such as the cephalosporins. [127] Lawsuits filed against those who are accused of infecting others with MRSA are also popular stories in the media. Chang VS, Dhaliwal DK, Raju L, Kowalski RP. Linezolid is more effective in soft tissue infections than vancomycin. [76] As shown in an animal study with diabetic mice, the topical application of a mixture of sugar (70%) and 3% povidone-iodine paste is an effective agent for the treatment of diabetic ulcers with MRSA infection. His infection returned in January 2007 and required three surgeries to remove infected tissue, and three weeks of hospital stay. A select few of the populations at risk include: As many as 22% of people infected with MRSA do not have any discernable risk factors. 2015 Jun;34(6):698-703. doi: 10.1097/ICO.0000000000000431. MRSA and MSSA colonization in patients is associated with significant mortality and morbidity in dialysis patients. [20]:637, Both CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA are resistant to traditional anti-staphylococcal beta-lactam antibiotics, such as cephalexin. [74] To prevent the spread of staphylococci or MRSA in the workplace, employers are encouraged to make available adequate facilities that support good hygiene. [4], Treatment is not standardized for other instances of MRSA infection in a wide range of tissues. [1][5][21] Surgical site infections occur on the skin surface, but can spread to internal organs and blood to cause sepsis. [112] In 1999, the University of Chicago reported the first deaths from invasive MRSA among otherwise healthy children in the United States. Brote de Staphylococcus aureus meticilino-resistente, Uruguay - Vol. [17] Cases of MRSA in such populations were first reported in the United States and later in Canada. [79] Mupirocin 2% ointment can be effective at reducing the size of lesions. [1] Linezolid belongs to the newer oxazolidinone class of antibiotics which has been shown to be effective against both CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA. [83], The World Health Organization advocates regulations on the use of antibiotics in animal feed to prevent the emergence of drug-resistant strains of MRSA. 23 (5 … [4] MRSA can be eradicated with a regimen of linezolid,[84] though treatment protocols vary and serum levels of antibiotics vary widely from person to person and may affect outcomes. Two hundred and eighty-eight patients (49%) had at least one positive MSSA or MRSA swab. A comparison of clinical virulence of nosocomially acquired methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infections in a university hospital. Normally, a bacterium must be cultured from blood, urine, sputum, or other body-fluid samples, and in sufficient quantities to perform confirmatory tests early-on. Five hundred and seventy-eight chronic hemodialysis patients were followed up retrospectively for 18 months. [11][24], Mathematical models describe one way in which a loss of infection control can occur after measures for screening and isolation seem to be effective for years, as happened in the UK. [60] The ST8:USA300 strain results in skin infections, necrotizing fasciitis, and toxic shock syndrome, whereas the ST1:USA400 strain results in necrotizing pneumonia and pulmonary sepsis. People who spend time in confined spaces with other people, including occupants of homeless shelters, Veterinarians, livestock handlers, and pet owners, People who are immunocompromised and also colonized, This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 19:51. [54] Other community-acquired strains of MRSA are ST8:USA500 and ST59:USA1000. [12][25], Prisons and military barracks[18] can be crowded and confined, and poor hygiene practices may proliferate, thus putting inhabitants at increased risk of contracting MRSA. [16] Additional outbreaks of CA-MRSA were reported through the 1980s and 1990s, including outbreaks among Australian Aboriginal populations that had never been exposed to hospitals. [25], Care should be taken when trying to drain boils, as disruption of surrounding tissue can lead to larger infections, including infection of the blood stream. [73] The National Institutes of Health recommend that those with wound drainage that cannot be covered and contained with a clean, dry bandage and those who cannot maintain good hygiene practices be reassigned. [73] In hospital settings, contact isolation can be stopped after one to three cultures come back negative. Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that typically resides asymptomatically in the anterior nares and the skin of mammals. Ceftaroline, a fifth-generation cephalosporin, is the first beta-lactam antibiotic approved in the US to treat MRSA infections in skin and soft tissue or community-acquired pneumonia. Archivos por enfermedad - Staphylococcus Aureus Meticilino-Resistente Staphylococcus Aureus Meticilino-Resistente (Click to expand/collapse) 27 de junio de 2013 - Staphylococcus aureus resistente a vancomicina. [116] In a meta-analysis of 31 studies, Cosgrove et al.,[117] concluded that MRSA bacteremia is associated with increased mortality as compared with MSSA bacteremia (odds ratio= 1.93; 95% CI = [69]:402 The rate had increased to 22% by 1995, and by 1997 the level of hospital S. aureus infections attributable to MRSA had reached 50%. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing is the most precise method for identifying MRSA strains. [122]:40, A 1,000-year-old eye salve recipe found in the medieval Bald's Leechbook at the British Library, one of the earliest known medical textbooks, was found to have activity against MRSA in vitro and in skin wounds in mice. Epub 2014 Aug 31. Rapid culture and sensitivity testing and molecular testing identifies carriers and reduces infection rates. Still, because no quick and easy method exists to diagnose MRSA, initial treatment of the infection is often based upon "strong suspicion" and techniques by the treating physician; these include quantitative PCR procedures, which are employed in clinical laboratories for quickly detecting and identifying MRSA strains. For example, in February 2008, the Tulsa County jail in Oklahoma started treating an average of 12 S. aureus cases per month. For bacteremia and endocarditis, vancomycin or daptomycin is considered. [18] A study linked MRSA to the abrasions caused by artificial turf. The initial presentation of MRSA is small red bumps that resemble pimples, spider bites, or boils; they may be accompanied by fever and, occasionally, rashes. The mecA gene, which confers resistance to a number of antibiotics, is always present in MRSA and usually absent in MSSA; however, in some instances, the mecA gene is present in MSSA but is not expressed. [54], In the UK, the most common strains of MRSA are EMRSA15 and EMRSA16. 1.93 ± 0.39). EMRSA 15 is also found to be one of the common MRSA strains in Asia. Las Staphylococcus son un grupo de bacterias. Excision and drainage can be done along with antibiotic treatment. PBP2a is a variant penicillin-binding protein that imparts the ability of S. aureus to be resistant to oxacillin. [28], Locker rooms, gyms, and related athletic facilities offer potential sites for MRSA contamination and infection. In October 2006, a high-school football player was temporarily paralyzed from MRSA-infected turf burns. [58] Researchers suggest that CA-MRSA did not evolve from HA-MRSA. [52] SpeG-positive ACME compensates for the polyamine hypersensitivity of S. aureus and facilitates stable skin colonization, wound infection, and person-to-person transmission. [11][24], People in nursing homes are at risk for all the reasons above, further complicated by their generally weaker immune systems. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. [40] mecA is further controlled by two co-repressors, blaI and blaR1. (BMJ 2007)[citation needed] MRSA alone was associated with 8% of nosocomial infections reported to the CDC National Healthcare Safety Network from January 2006 to October 2007. [71], The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention offers suggestions for preventing the contraction and spread of MRSA infection which are applicable to those in community settings, including incarcerated populations, childcare center employees, and athletes. Resistencia de β- lactamasas: La producción constitutiva de una gran cantidad de betalactamasas, por parte de algunas cepas de SA, le da la capacidad de hidrolizar lentamente a las penicilinas penicilinasa-resistentes. y resistentes a partir de una CMI ≥ 4 mg/L. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. A secondary covering of clothing is preferred. Tynes and Nicks apparently did not contract the infection from each other, but whether Banks contracted it from either individual is unknown. [4] The use of concurrent treatment with vancomycin or other beta-lactam agents may have a synergistic effect. [4] Clindamycin is not approved for the treatment of MRSA infection, but it is still used in children for soft-tissue infections. [94] Linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, daptomycin, ceftaroline, and tigecycline are used to treat more severe infections that do not respond to glycopeptides such as vancomycin.  |  MRSA blood infections in Latin America was 29%. The Infectious Disease Society of America recommends vancomycin, linezolid, or clindamycin (if susceptible) for treating those with MRSA pneumonia. [93] In surgical wounds, evidence is weak (high risk of bias) that linezolid may be better than vancomycin to eradicate MRSA SSIs. However, strains with intermediate (4–8 μg/ml) levels of resistance, termed glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus (GISA) or vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), began appearing in the late 1990s. [105] In 2003, the cost for a hospitalization due to MRSA infection was US$92,363; a hospital stay for MSSA was $52,791. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992, Communities and Local Government Committee, "Composition and immunological significance of the upper respiratory tract microbiota", "Focus on the prophylaxis, epidemiology and therapy of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infections and a position paper on associated risk factors: the perspective of an Italian group of surgeons", "General Information About MRSA in the Community", "Community-based educational intervention to limit the dissemination of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada", "Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection", "Challenges and Strategies for Prevention of Multidrug-Resistant Organism Transmission in Nursing Homes", "Study: Beachgoers More Likely to Catch MRSA", "Dangerous staph germs found at West Coast beaches", "Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among military recruits", "MRSA History Timeline: The First Half-Century, 1959–2009", "Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: epidemiology and clinical consequences of an emerging epidemic", "Staphylococcus aureus prevalence from dairy cows in India act as potential risk for community-associated infections?

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