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According to the most detailed authority, Herodian, the Roman armies suffered a number of humiliating setbacks and defeats,[31] while according to the Historia Augusta[32] as well as Alexander's own dispatch to the Roman Senate, he gained great victories. This alienated many in the Roman Army, leading to a conspiracy that resulted in the assassination of Alexander and his mother Julia Avita Mamaea and the accession of Maximinus Thrax. Alexander's death marked the epoch event for the Crisis of the Third Century—nearly 50 years of civil wars, foreign invasion, and collapse of the monetary economy. OK. Under the influence of his mother, Alexander did much to improve the morals and condition of the people, and to enhance the dignity of the state. The large sarcophagus found inside the tomb in the 16th century, and which contained the emperor’s remains, is in the Palazzo dei Conservatori Museum in Rome. Alexander's death marked the end of the Severan dynasty. [6], The historian Cassius Dio thought Alexianus was the son of Marcus Julius Gessius Marcianus, but Icks disputes this, saying the latter could not have married the emperor's mother before 212 and that Alexianus must've been fathered by his mother's first husband, who is of unknown name but of certain existence. He was the last of the Syrian emperors and the first emperor to be overthrown by military discontent on a wide scale. [citation needed] The emperor returned to Rome and celebrated a triumph in 233. Alexander's attendants fought against the other troops but could not hold off the combined might of those seeking the Emperor's assassination. Alexander Severus. [55] His damnatio memoriae was also reversed after Maximinus's death. However, as soon as Orbiana received the title of Augusta, Mamaea became increasingly jealous and resentful of Alexander's wife due to Mamaea's excessive desire of all regal female titles. The actual mausoleum, called Monte di Grano, is the third in size in Rome after the ones of Hadrian and of Augustus. Fue oriundo de la ciudad de Afrodisias, en Caria.… …   Wikipedia Español, Alejandro Radetic — Datos personales Nombre Alejandro Radetic Nacionalidad …   Wikipedia Español, We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. [5] Of his birth name, only two cognomina are known, from literary sources: Bassianus (Greek: Βασσιανός) according to the historian Cassius Dio, and Alexianus (Greek: Αλεξιανός) according to Herodian. [24] He also confirmed that soldiers could free their slaves in their wills,[25] protected the rights of soldiers to their property when they were on campaign,[26] and reasserted that a soldier's property acquired in or because of military service (his castrense peculium) could be claimed by no one else, not even the soldier's father. Sucesor: Maximino el Tracio: Información personal; Nombre secular: Marco Aurelio Severo Alejandro: Nacimiento: 1 de octubre de 208 Arca Cesarea: Fallecimiento: 18 de marzo de 235 (26 años) Moguntiacum, Germania Superior: Familia; Dinastía: Dinastía Severa: Padre: Marco Julio Gesio Marciano: Madre: Julia Mamea: Cónyuge: Salustia Orbiana (225-227) A los 14 años de edad sucedió a Heliogábalo, que había sido asesinado por… …   Enciclopedia Universal, Alejandro de Afrodisias — (en griego antiguo Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Ἀφροδισιεύς) fue el más célebre de los comentaristas griegos de las obras de Aristóteles. [53] After his death his economic policies were completely discarded, and the Roman currency was devalued; this signaled the beginning of the chaotic period known as the Crisis of the Third Century, which brought the empire to the brink of collapse.[49]. Consiguieron que Heliogábalo lo adoptara el 16 de junio de 221 d.C. y le nombrara César como su sucesor legítimo. Cuando llegó a emperador se le otorgaron los títulos de Augusto y Pater Patria. He managed to check the threat of the Sassanids. Pusillanimity was responsible for the revolt of Alexander's army, resulting in Severus falling victim to the swords of his own men,[50] following the nomination of Maximinus as emperor. They considered him dishonorable and feared he was unfit to be Emperor. According to the Augustan History, a late Roman work containing biographies of emperors and others, and considered by scholars to be a work of very dubious historical reliability,[60] Alexander prayed every morning in his private chapel. [33] Making Antioch his base, he organized in 233 a three-fold invasion of the Sassanian Empire; at the head of the main body he himself advanced to recapture northern Mesopotamia, while another army invaded Media through the mountains of Armenia, and a third advanced from the south in the direction of Babylon. [42] Different reasons are given for this issue; Campbell points to, "...the decline in the prestige of the Severan dynasty, the feeble nature of Alexander himself, who appeared to be no soldier and to be completely dominated by his mother's advice, and lack of real military success at a time during which the empire was coming under increasing pressure. The vase formed the basis of Jasperware. Alexander's mother, Julia Mamaea, asked for Origen to tutor Alexander in Christianity. Within minutes, Alexander was dead. Under these circumstances the army swiftly looked to replace Alexander.[48]. [18] Additionally, during his reign taxes were lightened; literature, art and science were encouraged;[19] and, for the convenience of the people, loan offices were instituted for lending money at a moderate rate of interest. BiographySarduy went to the equivalent of high school in Camagüey and in 1956 moved to Havana, where he began… …   Wikipedia, Severo Alejandro — Severo Alejandro, Marco Aurelio * * * latín Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander orig. [63][64], Also according to the Historia Augusta, Alexander's "chief amusement consisted in having young dogs play with little pigs." [51] These assassinations secured the throne for Maximinus. [21][22] He allowed a synagogue to be built in Rome, and he gave as a gift to this synagogue a scroll of the Torah known as the Severus Scroll. Shahan, T. (1912). Continuing to use this site, you agree with this. [13] Alexander divorced and exiled Orbiana in 227, after her father, Seius Sallustius, was executed after being accused of treason. [27], On the whole, Alexander's reign was prosperous until the rise, in the east, of the Sassanids[28] under Ardashir I. Fue apodado, gracias a su preeminencia, «el exégeta» (ὁ ἐξηγητής). The Romans prepared heavily for the war, building a fleet to carry the entire army across. "[42], Herodian, on the other hand, was convinced that "the emperor's miserliness (partly the result of his mother's greed) and slowness to bestow donatives" were instrumental in the fall of military discipline under Alexander. Busqui paraules i frases Milions en tots els idiomes. The Portland vase itself was borrowed and near copied by Josiah Wedgewood who appears to have added modesty drapery. hub.witness.org. Severus Alexander (/ s ə ˈ v ɪər ə s /; Latin: Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus; c. 208 – 19 March 235) was Roman Emperor from 222 to 235 and the last emperor of the Severan dynasty.He succeeded his cousin Elagabalus upon the latter's assassination in 222. Alexander could not openly punish the ringleader of the riot, and instead removed him to nominal post of honor in Egypt and then Crete, where he was "quietly put out of the way" sometime after the excitement had abated. [38], Although the Sassanids were checked for the time,[33] the conduct of the Roman army showed an extraordinary lack of discipline. According to the Historia Augusta, he wished to erect a temple to Jesus but was dissuaded by the pagan priests; however, much of this book is full of falsifications and modern scholars deem it almost completely untrustworthy. It seems likely that Bassianus was his family name, since several of his relatives were also called as such, and Alexianus his actual given name, which was later converted to Alexander. [56] Pietro Bartoli indicates that the vase contained the ashes of Severus Alexander. The soldiers serving under Alexander, already demoralized after their costly war against the Persians, were further discontented with their emperor when their homes were destroyed by the barbarian invaders. Perhaps his most tangible legacy was the emergence in the 16th Century of the 'Barberini vase'. [36][37] Still, Mesopotamia was retaken, and Ardashir was not thereafter able to extend his conquests, though his son, Shapur, would obtain some success later in the century. [45] Severus enforced a strict military discipline in his men that sparked a rebellion among his legions. Enciclopedia Universal. [8] Thus, to preserve her own position, she had Elagabalus adopt the young Alexander and then arranged for Elagabalus' assassination, securing the throne for Alexander. WITNESS se reserva el derecho de transferir información personal a un sucesor interesado, que adquiere derechos con respecto a esa información, como resultado de la venta de WITNESS [...] o de casi la totalidad de sus activos. [40] In 228, the Praetorian Guard murdered their prefect, Ulpian,[40] in Alexander's presence. Although the Senate declared the emperor and his rule damned upon the report of his death and the ascension of a replacement emperor, Alexander was deified after the death of Maximinus in 238. A súa avoa, verdadeira gobernante na sombra e promotora do nomeamento de Heliogábalo como emperador, comprendeu que os excesos deste emperador estaban a levar ós Severos por mal camiño, xa que a súa perda de popularidade entre o pobo romano, as lexións e senadores era xa patente; conseguiu que no 221 se lle concedese a virilis toga e que fose nomeado por Heliogábalo como césar e sucesor. Alejandro Severo en el diccionari de traducció espanyol - català en Glosbe, diccionari en línia, gratis. from the chapter entitled Administrative Strategies of the Emperor Severus Alexander and his Advisers, written by Lukas de Blois in the book Herrschaftsstrukturen und Herrschaftspraxis, chapter by. [23], In legal matters, Alexander did much to aid the rights of his soldiers. [10], Throughout his life, Alexander relied heavily on guidance from his grandmother, Maesa, and then mother, Julia Mamaea. The discovery of the vase is described by Pietro Santi Bartoli and referenced on page 28 of a book on The Portland Vase. [16] Excessive luxury and extravagance at the imperial court were diminished,[17] and he restored the Baths of Nero in 227 or 229; consequently, they are sometimes also known as the Baths of Alexander after him. He was extremely tolerant of Jews and Christians alike. [44], As word of the invasion spread, the Emperor took the front line and went to battle against the Germanic invaders. Her father was a man of consular rank; her grandfather's name was Catulus.[59]. [2] He and his cousin were both grandsons of the very influential and powerful woman Julia Maesa, who had arranged for Elagabalus' acclamation as emperor by the famous Third Gallic Legion. Because of this, he hoped the mere threat of his armies would be sufficient to persuade the hostile tribes to surrender. [7], Severus Alexander became emperor when he was around 14 years old, making him the youngest emperor in Rome's history, until the ascension of Gordian III. Gessius Bassianus Alexianus ( 209 AD, Fenicia–235, Galia). Their marriage was arranged by Alexander's mother, Mamaea. [11] As a young, immature, and inexperienced adolescent, Alexander knew little about government, warcraft, or the role of ruling over an empire. The northernmost army gained some success, fighting in mountainous territory favorable to the Roman infantry, but the southern army was surrounded and destroyed by Ardashir's skilful horse-archers, and Alexander himself retreated after an indecisive campaign, his army wracked by indiscipline and disease. [43], While Alexander was being educated in the Christian doctrines, the northern portion of his empire was being invaded by Germanic and Sarmatian tribes. It was the rumor of Alexander's death that triggered the assassination of Elagabalus and his mother.[3]. It is still visible in Piazza dei Tribuni, in the Quadraro area in Rome, where it resembles a large earth mound. Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander (1 October 208 – 19 March 235) was Roman emperor from 222 to 235, and the last from the Severan dynasty. However, Rome was militarily confronted with the rising Sassanid Empire and growing incursions from the tribes of Germania. Emperador romano (222–235). Alexander's 13-year reign was the longest reign of a sole emperor since Antoninus Pius. Gaius Iulius Verus Maximinus was the next best option. However, Lampridius makes it clear that he is more supportive of an alternative theory, that Alexander was murdered in Sicilia (located in Britain). [13] He employed noted jurists to oversee the administration of justice, such as the famous jurist Ulpian. Alexander's grandmother Maesa believed that he had more potential to rule than her other grandson, the increasingly unpopular emperor Elagabalus. Alejandro Severo — Este artículo o sección necesita referencias que aparezcan en una publicación acreditada, como revistas especializadas, monografías, prensa diaria o páginas de Internet fidedignas. The vase passed through the hands of Sir William Hamilton Ambassador to the Royal Court in Naples and was later sold to the Duke and Duchess of Portland, and has subsequently been known as the Portland Vase. [39] Alexander managed to suppress the uprising, and Taurinus drowned while attempting to flee across the Euphrates. Italics indicates a junior co-emperor, while underlining indicates a usurper. Alexander's peacetime reign was prosperous. He was a soldier from Thrace who had a golden reputation and was working hard to increase his military status. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. Alexander did not father children with any of his wives. [42], After the Persian war, Alexander returned to Antioch with the famous Origen, one of the greatest Fathers of the Christian Church. Maesa died in 224, leaving Mamaea as the sole influence upon Alexander's actions. The following year he decreased the amount of base metal in the denarius while adding more silver, raising the silver purity and weight again to 50.5% and 1.50 grams.

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